News Net Nebraska

Complete News World

Time is not the same for everyone: Einstein was right (again)

Time is not the same for everyone: Einstein was right (again)

No one is immune to Albert Einstein's relativity, not even on Earth (and time is not the same)

When Einstein presented his theory of special relativity in 1905, our understanding of the universe changed forever. Before him, scientists described every “point” in the universe using only Quattro coordinates: The three spatial locations plus time, to indicate the moment at which a particular event occurred. This all changed when the famous scientist realized that if you move relative to another observer, you will age less than anything else that remains stationary. Whenever one observer moves in the universe relative to another, he will experience an experience Time dilation. His clock will run more slowly than a stationary observer. This great truth has been tested many times over the past century, including in the use of airplane clocks.

Einstein's gravitational factor

Tempo Albert Einstein
Scene from the movieInterstellarCredit: Warner Bros.

When Einstein first presented his theory of special relativity, there was one element missing: he didn't take it into account gravitygravity. He had no idea that proximity to a large mass could change that as well time passing. Because of the rotation and gravitational pull of each particle that makes up the Earth, our planet inflates at the equator and compresses at the poles. As a result, the Earth's gravity at the poles is… Very lightly Stronger (about 0.4%) than at the equator.

“Passione Astronomia PLUS” was officially born: a sustainable platform for scientific training and publishing accessible to everyone. You will find workshops and courses in astronomy, discover them here

However, Einstein's original goal was to use clocks to test the validity of his theory. Its effectiveness was only tested in the 1950s Quartz watches Or the mechanics were not reliable for this type of experiment. That's how it was created Atomic clock: The idea was to use frequency vibratory of corn to keep time.

See also  Borgotaro Hospital: Pasquale Gianluca Giuri is the new director of internal medicine

Havell-Keating experiment

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein

Thanks to the Havel-Keating experiment, it became possible to verify this with extreme precision The effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the passage of time. It was 1971. Astronomers Richard Keating and Joseph Havel took three atomic clocks. They left one at the airport, and took the other two on two trips around the world, one in the opposite direction to the other. The plane that flew east also went in the same direction as the Earth's rotation. Since the plane's motion and the planet's rotation were in the same direction, the speeds also added up: less time would have passed on her hands. The other was taken on a plane heading west at that time against Earth's rotation.

Upon their return, the three clocks were no longer synchronized: the clock that had traveled east (in the same direction as the Earth's rotation) was synchronized. backwards By 59 billionths of a second, compared to the remaining hour at the airport. He was the one who traveled west (and therefore in the opposite direction of the Earth's rotation). Avanti 273 billionths of a second. Obviously these are imperceptible values, but they once again showed how right Einstein was.