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Physicists have finally discovered a new particle: ‘Glueballs’

Physicists have finally discovered a new particle: ‘Glueballs’

According to what was published in the magazine Physical review letters A new fundamental particle was discovered, the “Glueball”, which is a particle of strong nuclear interaction, isolated and not combined with any other particle. The strong nuclear reaction is one of the four fundamental forces in the universe and the gluon is its expression.

These particles are predicted according to The standard model of physics Which, although it has been criticized and still has problems, attempts to be an explanation of all existing particles.

Although the matter that makes us up is made up of atoms, made up of protons, neutrons and electrons, and where protons and neutrons are made up of three quarks each – all bound together by gluons through strong interaction – this is not the only possible combination of particles, according to the Standard Model. .

According to our standard model:

  • Baryons (each containing 3 quarks) or antibaryons (each containing 3 antiquarks).
  • Mesons (with a pair of quarks and antiquarks).
  • Exotic states such as 4quarks (2 quarks and 2 antiquarks), 5quarks (4 quarks and 1 antiquark, or 1 quark and 4 antiquarks), or 6 quarks (6 quarks, 3 quarks and 3 antiquarks, or 6 antiquarks), etc.
  • Or, it’s also possible to have states made up of just gluons – without valence quarks or antiquarks – known as glue balls.

In radical new research just published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the BES III collaboration has just announced that the exotic particle, previously identified as X(2370), may actually be the lightest gummy ball predicted by the Standard Model. This is the science of affirmation and what it all means.

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The importance of the glue ball lies in the fact that it is closely linked to the strong nuclear interaction, the force that binds quarks together into protons and electrons, which then serve to bind the nuclei of atoms together. This is the strongest interaction, 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic interaction. The discovery of a glue ball, i.e. a single gluon, will help understand how it works.

Traces from Fermilab’s bubble chamber, revealing the charge, mass, energy and momentum of the particles and antiparticles created. Even if we could reconstruct what happened at the point of collision for each individual event, we would need a large number of statistics to build up enough evidence to confirm the existence of a new type of particle.

In the world of high energy physics, to find a particle, it is not enough to create it in a laboratory and observe it. The experiment must be repeated several times to verify that theoretical expectations agree with observed results. This is especially important when searching for particles that only exist under rare conditions.

Many particles can only be detected by the signatures left when other particles decay. During the 20th century, many Standard Model particles were discovered, including exotic quarks such as strange, magic, bottom, and top quarks. All particles containing these quarks are unstable and decay quickly.

For any type of composite particle to exist, quantum rules must be followed. Energy, electric charge, angular momentum and other quantum properties must be conserved, just to understand the law according to which E=mc2 is respected.

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