Why do batteries degrade? What is the longest-lasting chemistry? This is the question that reader Cesare poses to Professor Armaroli, in our short column “Ask Nicola Armaroli”. We remind you that readers can contact him by writing to [email protected].
Lithium ions lose their speed
The world explains to us that Deterioration This is due to A A chemical process that slows the flow of ions Lithium from one cell electrode to another. In fact, the battery captures energy by “pushing” lithium ions (or electrons). From cathode to anode It is released by activating A Counterflow Which passes inside the engine and makes it move. The anode and cathode are separated by an electrolyte, usually a liquid, which allows ions to pass through but prevents short-circuiting.
I heat resulting from the passage of current, and Strong tension And the normal aging Over time, the chemicals in these ingredients deteriorate, reducing their effectiveness.
But metals don't disappear, they are recycled
The result is that the battery decreases little by little He loses part of his ability To store and release electrical energy.
In catastrophic cases, protrusions of lithium metal called dendrites can form, which penetrate the electrolyte and create a short circuit, Armaroli adds.
I Lithium and other minerals However, the precious contents contained in the battery They don't disappear And destroy the battery that has lost its efficiency can be restoredAnd refine and reuse.
Longest lived? LFP battery
The challenge now is to develop one “Care” of ingredients Degraded allowing battery efficiency to be restored Without destroying it.
lakeHimika is the longest-lived“It is undoubtedly so,” Armaroli adds, answering the second part of the question LFP (lithium, iron phosphate). They decompose less because Crystal structure Certainly from the metals used in these batteries more stronger. And the Low energy density Metal displays for Minor stress Thermal and electronic.
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