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Migrants' routes are changing: beyond the landing boom

Migrants’ routes are changing: beyond the landing boom

In the first months of 2021, it is already possible to track the overall picture of the migration phenomenon Meditranio. The trend of arrivals to our country is higher than it was during the same period last year. But there is a change: Today we start over Libyan coasts. what happens?

Direction of roads in the Mediterranean

Interesting data is the one collected byUNHCR In the first months of 2021 with reference to flows in the Mediterranean Immigrants. About 16,558 foreigners crossed it to reach the set targets. Going into detail, it is possible to analyze what is happening along a path Three mice: Central, Western and Eastern. The central center, which affects Italy, is the most followed with 8,472 immigrants. It is followed by the Western, which has its landing point Spain with 7,051 foreigners Then the eastern which belongs to Greece and includes 1,998 foreigners. The direction of flows along the Mediterranean already confirms that the central path is the most followed as in 2020. Therefore, nothing new so far. On the other hand, a clear change can be found compared to 2019 where, unlike the current data, the eastern route was the most mobile. In fact, that year Greece recorded a surge in arrivals with 67,000 people. After the state of emergency that broke out at that time, the trend began to gradually decrease due to tensions between the government of Athens and Turkey. Political disputes between the two countries led to the activation of more controls on departures, which were greatly reduced.

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The Libyan road is the real danger

The Central Mediterranean route is therefore the most popular in this first phase of the year and will remain so until December 31st. After clarifying this aspect, it is also necessary to highlight a symbolic fact of the migration phenomenon: in the same stretch of the sea, Italy is not the only landing land. With Malta too. But if the number of foreigners who landed on Italian soil so far 8,472, there were 65 on Maltese soil. Figures from which the apparent disproportion of arrivals within the two countries, which have different regional dimensions, but where the migration phenomenon is managed, was implemented in a completely different way. But who are the migrants arriving? The difference regarding the origin of foreigners crossing the Italian border is becoming increasingly noticeable compared to last year. Indeed, in 2020 Tunisians were the undisputed champions of the landings with 41% of presence. In 2021 instead The data speak of a decrease in their departure On the other side of the Mediterranean: so far, the arrival of Tunisians in Italy is about 15%. Where do immigrants come from then? from Libya. When it comes to people coming from the Libyan lands, it is imperative to make an important clarification, which is that Libyan citizens do not leave Libya, but rather the citizens of the country.Sub-Saharan Africa. What happens there?

Because we start mostly from Libya

Until last December The common belief was that, also in the new year, Italy on the immigration front should watch out for the Tunisian route. The image is now completely inverted. Why explain in professor Vittorio Emanuel ParsiProfessor at the Catholic University: “In Libya – I announce – the landing is zero if there are two conditions: If there is a total.” Controlling From the territory of the militia or, on the contrary, if there is a total Political anarchyIn the first case, it is the militia’s activity that prevents boats from setting out at sea, and the second is the insecurity that discourages migrants from heading to the ports of departure. Currently in Libya there is no other situation or situation: “Now a new government has assumed power in Tripoli – Parsi added – and this in itself is a good thing. But the new authorities are still unable to control the area. and thenHeight Of those leaving for Italy. ”A situation that can last for a long time, especially during the summer months:Draghi on his last visit – Parsi declared again – stressing the importance of cooperation with Libya. What Rome has to do now is really change its position, look at a common policy with the European Union and not look back and regret Gaddafi. ”In short, we need to make the renewed agreement with Tripoli work to avoid a new upsurge in the landings.

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The consequences of the epidemic

The increase in the number of migrants along the Central Mediterranean route is also attributed to a series of circumstances: “In the east – according to the teacher – there is a strong situation Political tension Between Greece and Turkey, this is what led to the influx of military ships into the region. In the West, Spain and Morocco continue their traditional policy of ControllingThat is why migratory flows found a natural outlet in the stretch of sea in front of Italy. And there is nothing to worry about in Libya alone: ​​“We are always looking with interest at the routes that originate from Tunisia – a source of the Prosecutor General of Agrigento declared in Most of the independent landings come from there. “

Professor Parsi also reaffirmed the concept: “Tunisia is still the weak point in the Mediterranean”. The reason is clear: the country is the most affected by crisis Raised it pandemic. With tourism collapsing and problems facing the economy intensifying, the fear of large numbers of immigrants arriving from the Tunisian coast is not far away. According to Vittorio Emmanuel Parsi, as he himself described it in the book “The Weak,” the effects of Covid on migration are set to remain visible for a long time: “Inequality has increased – repeated – the pressure of thousands of people from other parts of the Mediterranean will intensify in Next years “.