Sunday, July 21, 2024

Nuclear fusion reactor record


Have you ever thought about the heat it gives off destination? That heat, which comes to us from an average distance of about 150 million kilometers, is so strong that it allows life on Earth. Perhaps something unimaginable to us mere mortals, perhaps a little less to scientists. In China, they managed to beat the heat produced by our star. Yes, it is now possible to beat the temperature thought to be recorded on the Sun, and actually exceed it on Earth. ten times more. Thanks to the “artificial sun”. The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Fusion Reactor (EAST), a working tokamak reactor in Hefei, has already set a new temperature record, according to Chinese state news agency Global Times, and is artificially hotter than ever. It has been reached on Earth for a relatively long time: 120 million degrees Celsius, a temperature that the reactor plasma has maintained for 101 seconds. Moreover, according to the version, the reactor itself, thanks to the strong magnetic field that it uses to melt hot plasma, was able to maintain a temperature of 160 million degrees Celsius for 20 seconds. It is much higher than the temperature of the core of the sun which can reach the level of only 15 million degrees Celsius.

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records struck – The result broke the previous record of keeping a plasma temperature at 100 million degrees Celsius for 100 seconds. By the end of 2020, South Korea had reached 100 million degrees for 20 seconds. According to Li Miao, director of the Department of Physics at Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, this achievement is a milestone in achieving the goal of keeping the temperature at a constant level for a long time. The Tokamak apparatus is located in the Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is designed to replicate the naturally occurring process of nuclear fusion in the sun and stars to deliver nearly unlimited clean energy through controlled nuclear fusion, often called the “artificial sun”. The device in question was manufactured at the end of 2019 and was first commissioned in December 2020. Currently, nuclear fission is used in ground power plants, and it is a more dangerous and less energy-efficient method. For this reason, the ignition of the Chinese “artificial sun” nuclear reactor – called HL-2M Tokamak – marked the beginning of a new era.

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clean energy – Lin Boqiang, director of the China Center for Energy Economics Research at Xiamen University, explained that energy generated by nuclear fusion is the most reliable and cleanest energy, adding that if the technology can be commercially applied, it will have enormous economic benefits. However, Lin cautioned that because the technology is still in the experimental stage, it still takes at least 30 years for the technology to become usable outside of the lab. The next goal may be to run at a constant temperature for a week, according to Li Miao, director of the physics department at the Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen. «The breakthrough represents a major advance and the ultimate goal should be to keep the temperature at a constant level for a long time».

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global experience – The EAST experiment is part of the framework of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the world’s largest nuclear fusion research project headquartered in France, which is expected to be completed in 2025. Information technology is a major global science project second only to the space station International in size, it has been jointly built with China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States. Its success is important for the future peaceful use of international integration. China dedicates about 9% of research and development. Chinese scientists have been working on developing smaller versions of the nuclear fusion reactor since 2006. «The development of nuclear fusion energy is not only a means of solving China’s strategic energy needs, but also has great significance for the future sustainable development of China’s energy and national economy.»The ruling Communist Party spokesman said the People’s Daily.

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Plasma melted – The Chinese “artificial sun” allows the melting of plasma, that is, an ionized gas made up of a group of electrons and ions (with an electrical charge of zero) resulting in an incredible temperature. Plasma is the fourth state of matter (in addition to solids, liquids, and gases) and is the “matter” of which lightning, the northern lights, and stars are made. If scientists can figure out how to harness the energy from nuclear fusion, it could provide a nearly unlimited source of clean energy. Fusion is actually the Holy Grail of energy and is what powers our sun, which burns at about 15 million degrees Celsius. It combines atomic nuclei to produce massive amounts of energy, and is the opposite of the fission process used in atomic weapons and nuclear power plants, which breaks it down into pieces. Unlike fission, fusion does not emit greenhouse gases and has fewer risks of accidents or theft of atomic materials. But achieving the merger is very difficult and expensive, with the total cost of ITER estimated at about 19 billion euros). This is because the making of hydrogen isotope atoms collide and fuse to produce helium, in the same way that the sun generates energy, producing an enormous amount of waste heat. However, British scientists announced last month that they had found a way to treat these exhaust gases, cooling them from 150 million degrees Celsius to a few hundred degrees, temperatures similar to a car engine. This significantly reduces the corrosion of the reactor in which the fusion takes place. Scientists from the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) in Culham, Oxfordshire, have used a £55m experimental fusion reactor called MAST Upgrade. Its core is Tokamak, which uses a strong magnetic field to confine isotopes of hydrogen into a spherical shape, similar to an apple from the core, as it is heated by microwaves in a plasma to produce fusion. The new conversion means that long-promised nuclear fusion could be commercially viable in about 20 years, with UKAEA planning to build an enlarged version by 2040.

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